All owners of summer cottages, cottages and country houses are well aware of the problem of wastewater disposal. If the house does not have a connection to the central sewerage system, then an autonomous sewerage device is needed. Previously, cesspools were equipped for this, which required regular cleaning, and in themselves they are not a reliable and safe structure. Now it is much easier to solve the problem of drains in the country, because you can use septic tanks, but when choosing them, you need to take into account a lot of factors.
How does a septic tank work?
To know which septic tank is needed for a summer residence, you need to imagine the principle of operation of this device.
A septic tank is a special design for wastewater treatment. It consists of several chambers, each of which performs its own function. According to the principle of wastewater treatment, septic tanks are divided into anaerobic and aerobic, but there are also accumulative ones.
The wastewater flows through the sewer pipes to the first chamber of the septic tank, where primary treatment is carried out: filtration and settling. Clarified waters without large inclusions pass into the next chamber, where bacterial cleaning takes place, and from there they can be sent to the filtration fields: through the hole, the purified water enters the ground, where it is cleaned, or even reused for technical purposes (in the case of aerobic cleaning).
If anaerobic bacteria are used, then air is unnecessary for their vital activity and normal cleaning. They process waste water, eventually forming gas and mineral sludge: the gas is discharged outside using special pipes, and the sludge settles. By the way, if a lot of wastewater comes to such a septic tank, then it may be justified to install special equipment that will collect the outgoing biogas for its further use. Almost purified water is directed to the next chamber, where anaerobic bacteria purify it, and from there almost pure effluents are directed to filtration fields.
When cleaning, you can use aerobic bacteria, and then the efficiency increases to 98%, but for their normal life, during which the decomposition of organic matter in the waste, oxygen is needed. It is supplied with the help of compressor units, which automatically turn on after a certain period of time, and they need electricity to operate.
A storage septic tank is the simplest structure, which usually consists of one chamber. It is sealed enough to accumulate sewage, which then needs to be pumped out, and for this use a sewage machine and the services of professionals. In some septic tanks of this type, tank filling sensors are provided. This option is preferable for those who are in the country very rarely, and the arrangement of more technological cleaning does not make sense or is generally impossible for other reasons.
Now there are two main ways to equip your summer cottage with a septic tank: buying a ready-made structure or building it yourself. The first option is simpler and faster, because you just need to dig a pit and connect the sewer pipes to the finished structure. At the same time, all dirty construction processes are absent, and the installation can even be carried out independently.
Septic tank selection
At the moment, the choice of septic tanks is so wide that even a fairly experienced person can easily get confused in it. To buy a septic tank for a summer residence inexpensively, and at the same time get a high-quality structure, you need to take into account a lot of parameters: performance, type of soil, climate, etc.
Volume and performance
The volume of the septic tank depends on the number of people staying at the dacha. So, it was found that the rate of wastewater formation per person per day is 200 liters. This value must be multiplied by the number of people living in the country, and the daily volume of wastewater formation is obtained. But at the same time SNiPs require that the volume of septic tanks can accommodate at least a three-day amount of wastewater, so we multiply the resulting value by 3. The value of the required volume is obtained in liters, but in stores this parameter is indicated in m³. It is easy to translate one into the other, just remember that 1m³ = 1000 liters.
The choice of the design of the septic tank also depends on how much waste is formed in the country per day. If this value does not exceed 1000 liters, then you can safely purchase a single-chamber septic tank, if 1-10 m³ of wastewater is formed, then it is better to use a two-chamber structure that will probably cope with such a load. With an even greater volume of wastewater formation, the most productive three-chamber models are chosen. If the family plans to come to the dacha only periodically, then a single-chamber septic tank will do, and even a storage facility will be quite appropriate.
Septic tank material
Septic tanks can be made of plastic, metal or concrete, with each material having its own advantages and is more preferable in certain conditions.
Plastic septic tanks
They are lightweight, durable, reliable and robust. They can last for decades, and at the same time, their installation is quite simple and does not require the use of special equipment. But the lightness of a plastic septic tank can be considered not only an advantage, but also a disadvantage, since it can simply float to the surface. That is why such containers are concreted or fastened with special belts during the installation process.
Concrete septic tanks
Reliable, simple designs that are not afraid of corrosion. Such septic tanks are quite durable, but they are heavy, and they are installed in several ways. One of them involves the installation of special concrete rings, and you definitely cannot do without special equipment. The second method involves the step-by-step pouring of concrete into a previously prepared formwork.
Metal septic tanks
These structures are characterized by such advantages as light weight and ease of installation, which, together with a democratic price, makes metal septic tanks one of the most popular among summer residents. Only their high susceptibility to corrosion speaks against such structures, therefore, metal septic tanks can only be called durable with a stretch.
Septic tank and soil type
When choosing a septic tank, it is necessary to take into account such a factor as the type of soil, because it largely depends on which type of cleaning will be more acceptable. So, on sandy soils, it is possible to equip effective filtration fields, which makes it possible to use cheaper anaerobic septic tanks in such conditions.
On clay soils, it is better to use septic tanks with biological or even biochemical treatment, since natural filtration under these conditions is practically impossible: clay absorbs water very slowly. An alternative is the organization of a sand filter and the installation of additional equipment for the removal of treated water.
If the groundwater is located very high on the site, then you need to take care of the maximum tightness of the septic tank so that untreated drains do not contaminate the soil, and so that groundwater does not destroy the structure. In this case, the best option is a plastic septic tank, and the filtration fields cannot be used in such conditions, therefore it is better to use biological purification.
Ideally, even before starting the installation of the septic tank, conduct a study of the soil on the site, which will make it possible to clearly determine the required depth of the septic tank, the diameter and slope of the pipes so that the drains quickly and correctly flow into the septic tank.
When choosing a septic tank with a biofilter, it is worth remembering that long downtime in its work, which are associated with the absence of people in the country and, accordingly, sewage drains, can negatively affect microorganisms. They will not be able to live without a nutrient medium that comes to them with wastewater, and will gradually perish. That is why it is better to use such aerobic purification systems if someone stays in the country regularly.
The choice of a septic tank is also influenced by the climatic conditions in the region. For northern cold regions, a concrete structure is best suited, since among all materials it is the most resistant to temperature extremes.
For a small family who comes to the dacha from time to time, an anaerobic septic tank is ideal, maintenance of which will be minimal: sometimes clean it of silt, which is the result of the vital activity of bacteria, and periodically insulate it.
Deep cleaning stations are more efficient, but also expensive to operate. They are suitable for a large family who regularly visit the country, or they will be an excellent option for several summer cottages.
Manufacturers of septic tanks for summer cottages
Experts advise purchasing septic tanks only from those manufacturers who have already established themselves on the market. Today, a huge number of companies offer their facilities, but such septic tanks are very popular and well-deserved:
“Tank” – domestic septic tanks, which are notable for their low price, high degree of purification, ease of installation and autonomy in operation. Septic tanks are made of plastic, the thickness of which varies from 10 to 17 mm, depending on the modification. All septic tanks of the manufacturer are equipped with additional stiffeners, which makes them even more durable and reliable;
“Topas” – septic tanks, which are popular with many summer residents due to the absence of the need to buy additional drugs to accelerate the process of effluent decay, as well as due to the relative ease of use and low frequency of cleaning from sludge;
“Unilos” – septic tanks with different performance, but all of them are easy to care for: once a year you just need to scoop up the accumulated solid sediment with a shovel. The rate of wastewater treatment is very high here, which is due to the use of aerobic bacteria and the need to supply electricity;
“Tver” is a reliable septic tank that requires special attention during the installation process, since often its incorrect operation is connected precisely with errors in the arrangement. That is why it is better to entrust the most important and responsible parts of the work to professionals;
“Bars” – septic tanks, which are distinguished by a wide selection, reasonable price, high quality and reliability in operation;
“Poplar” is one of the least problematic septic tanks with an excellent price / quality ratio.
The equipment designed for autonomous sewage water treatment in the country is very diverse, and in order to choose the right septic tank, you need to take into account a lot of factors. You need to familiarize yourself with the main types of septic tanks and the principle of their operation, weigh the conditions in which the structure will be operated, take into account the type of soil and climate, the number of people who visit the country, the duration of these visits, evaluate your budget, and only then make a decision.