This article will tell you about the types of waterproofing and their purpose. The modern construction market is represented by a variety of options for waterproofing materials, which are designed to effectively protect the foundation, roof, walls, overlapping of the building from the harmful effects of groundwater moisture, precipitation. Carrying out protective work should be carried out with high quality using the waterproofing that should be used in each individual case according to the rules of construction work. Each type of waterproofing has its own advantages and disadvantages, it can be used in different construction works. Let’s take a closer look at each type of modern protective materials that are used today.
Paintable waterproofing is a waterproof film that is formed by applying liquid or plastic materials to the surface, such as bitumen (the most common waterproofing material), mastic or special paint and varnish that have appropriate properties, that is, resistance to moisture.
Bituminous mastics have different fillers – lime, asbestos, talc, which will make the waterproofing of high quality and guarantee protection from capillary moisture in the wall or floor of the building structure. Modern waterproofing paints or varnishes contain synthetic resins and plastics in their structure, which will also create excellent protection from a humid environment. The main types of paint waterproofing materials are bituminous, rubber, acrylic, polyurethane and silicone mixtures.
Application of bituminous paint waterproofing
To apply bituminous hot mastics, the mixture should be heated to 170 degrees Celsius so that it is easy to apply and penetrates well into all cracks and irregularities through which moisture can penetrate. For cold mastics, heating is not required, they are immediately ready for use, but they are more expensive than the first option. Cold mastics require heating at an ambient temperature of + 5 degrees. They are made from furyl, epoxy, perchlorovinyl and other resins on a synthetic basis.
Before carrying out waterproofing work with bitumen mastic, the surface should be treated with a composition of one part of bitumen itself and three parts of white spirit or gasoline. Then the composition is applied with a roller, brush, or in a faster way using a spray or spray gun. Flame spraying is also considered as paint waterproofing, in which the paint is applied in at least two layers with a time interval of about 15 hours. The thickness of the bitumen should be 2 millimeters.
This type of waterproofing combines two types at once – this is paint protection, and the actual coating, therefore, it has great efficiency, perfectly protecting brick, concrete, metal and other surfaces. Gluing waterproofing means covering the surface with roll or sheet materials, for example, such as roofing material or extruded polystyrene foam, which are glued to bitumen mastics using cold or hot application.
The main type of gluing materials is roll waterproofing, which is represented by a huge selection in modern building supermarkets designed for various waterproofing works. The most affordable roll material is roofing material.
Installation of gluing waterproofing
When carrying out gluing waterproofing, bituminous mastic is used, and not bitumen-rubber. It is necessary to paste the roll material in several layers, while maintaining a certain interval, allowing the layer to dry. Some of the types of roll materials are foil-insol, metal-insol, hydro-insol, steklobite, reinforced asphalt mats, polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride films. Glass roofing material, isol, brizol are also used.
When carrying out waterproofing work with pasting materials, it is tightly rolled out and glued with bitumen or similar mastic, connecting the edges with an overlap of 10-15 centimeters. The last layer must be covered with hot bitumen mastic and, if possible, covered with a brick or other wall. On the foundation, such waterproofing can be strengthened by digging in with clay.
This waterproofing is a different liquid formulation of mastics and mortars (slurries) to create seamless continuous waterproofing layers. It can be one or several layers, depending on the required degree of protection. It is a durable waterproofing that is resistant to physical and mechanical stress, has good resistance to aggressive chemical and water environments. It is also elastic enough so that cracking does not appear under the influence of weather conditions or uneven settlement of the house in the future.
It is possible to classify the coating waterproofing into two main groups – these are mineral and bituminous masses.
- In the first case, it is a cement-based mixture (white or gray Portland cement) with the inclusion of special polymers and granules. They are supplied in the form of a dry powder, which is diluted with water in certain proportions.
- In the second case, the basis of the waterproofing mixture is bitumen, which is covered with a layer of at least 4 millimeters and is additionally reinforced with an appropriate reinforcing mesh.
Application of coating waterproofing
If you use seamless cement-based waterproofing, then such a protective coating can withstand a fairly high pressure of 7 atmospheres, which is equivalent to diving to a depth of about 70 meters. It is often used for waterproofing swimming pools, which require good protection from water and in basements, in order to prevent moisture from entering the house or to stop the active flow. Can be applied to a variety of concrete, cement or brick substrates.
Depending on the type of material used, hot or cold coating is used for waterproofing the surface. You should know that bituminous mastics and sealants on the same basis insulate a dry surface well, but have toxicity, which should be taken into account. If you do not want to use toxic waterproofing, you will have to increase your budget and purchase two-component polyurethane mixtures that are free from this drawback and are completely non-toxic.
Depending on the materials used, plastering waterproofing can be divided into three subspecies.
- The first is cement plaster, which is applied to the surface with a layer with a thickness of 5 to 40 millimeters. The application of a cement-sand mortar with the addition of water repellents or mineral fillers is carried out in layers. The mortar is mixed in a ratio of 1 to 1 or 1 to 2. The total thickness of the plaster is a durable waterproofing layer.
- The second is asphalt plaster, which is applied in a layer of up to 4 millimeters in several layers, usually 2-3 layers, but more is possible. The coating is a hot or cold mastic protection. After application, it is required to create a layer of protection of brick or concrete layer when creating vertical waterproofing. With horizontal waterproofing, 2 layers of 7-8 millimeters are created, which is protected with a screed made of cement mortar or concrete.
- The third is cast asphalt waterproofing. is a solution of hot mastic, which is poured into the cavity between the protective wall and the insulated surface. This is with vertical waterproofing. In case of horizontal protection against moisture, the mortar should be leveled over the surface, and then covered with additional cement screed.
Application of plaster waterproofing
Most often, plaster waterproofing is used in places where a large amount of moisture is concentrated. For example, very often pools are waterproofed with this particular type of moisture protection. Such waterproofing is also very effective in the bathroom or other rooms with high levels of humidity. In addition, it is used as anti-filtration and anti-corrosion protection of inclined and vertical surfaces.
They also use plaster waterproofing on concrete, metal or brick surfaces. Layers of such protection are applied from the side from which the hydrostatic head comes. If this pressure is variable, then the waterproofing should be fixed between rigid supporting structures, for example, brickwork.
This type of waterproofing ensures good water resistance of concrete structures. A feature of these waterproofing materials is that they can be used both at the beginning of the construction process and at the final stages of work. In the future, penetrating waterproofing can be used to restore the lost waterproofing properties of building structures. Compositions are a structure that penetrates deeply into a porous surface.
In addition to penetrating the surface and creating a moisture barrier, this waterproofing has the ability to prevent corrosive processes in reinforcing structures. Also, penetration protection compounds can resist chemical attack and significantly increase surface resistance. The service life of building structures that have been treated with penetrating waterproofing increases significantly. This allows you to solve several problems at once when carrying out protection against moisture penetration.
Application of penetrating waterproofing
An example of waterproofing works using penetrating waterproofing is the application of a solution of Portland cement and finely ground sand, to which chemically active ingredients have been added to stimulate the process of self-healing cracks and their prevention. After applying this protective layer to the concrete surface of a wall or floor, the surface strength increases by a rather impressive 20%.
In addition, a feature of penetrating waterproofing is frost resistance. Does not require surface priming, leveling or perfect dryness. Also, no protective wall or additional backfill is required. This waterproofing is quite versatile and has a lot of advantages over others, due to the property of strengthening and waterproofing the surfaces of walls and floors without the need for reinforcement with additional structures such as metal reinforcing mesh.
The composition of the waterproofing mixture is sprayed using a spray gun or a special airless spraying unit. The compound that is sprayed on a surface is liquid rubber or other similar acrylic compound that is sprayed on absolutely any surface. Such waterproofing is now quite popular and quite affordable for small budgets.
In connection with the growing demand for this waterproofing material, they began to produce very durable sprayed waterproofing based on polyurethane, acrylic or traditional bituminous compounds. Waterproofing has a long service life, which, undoubtedly, will interest people who want to maximally protect their home from moisture penetration and further destruction and corrosion of walls, floors or foundations.
Application of sprayed waterproofing
The unique properties of sprayed waterproofing allows you to maintain its anti-corrosion properties and protection against moisture penetration for 50 years, which is an impressive period and gives a great advantage over other types of waterproofing. The drying time of this composition on the surface is about 10-20 hours, depending on the thickness of the layer that was applied. The versatility of this waterproofing gives it a wide range of applications, due to its resistance to aggressive environments. These materials have good soundproofing and anti-corrosion properties.
This waterproofing is used in the production and repair of construction cranes, protecting pipelines from breakouts and creating an additional layer of protection. Also, the scope of use includes the processing of machine parts in relevant industries and the creation of a protective layer on the decks of ships. In addition, waterproofing spraying with a colored compound is used on sports grounds. This very effective waterproofing spraying will keep the building safe even from high levels of moisture in various conditions. Versatility and good protection offers advantages over traditional waterproofing.