Today, structured cabling systems (SCS) faithfully serve large and medium-sized businesses, which are increasingly demanding the efficiency and quality of information exchange between employees, departments, territorial divisions.
If we correctly make the SCS project, then the output will be a very flexible system that can be easily scaled and include all new subsystems as the company develops and expands. In general, the availability of design documentation is always necessary, we will not list the obvious advantages!
Unlike more “modest” in scale “closed” local computer networks of small enterprises (to which, accordingly, low technical requirements are imposed), SCS should provide (and provides) a high level of information security, economical use of resources and effective, uninterrupted interaction of all network components.
SCS infrastructure reliably unites and provides an environment for interaction of various services and subsystems: LAN, telephony, security (in particular, video surveillance) and so on.
In fact, this system is the physical environment in which all the communication processes that underlie productive business conduct take place.
SCS organization principles
A structured cabling system is built from cable lines, connected in a network, which can span one or more sites.
Networks and devices are hierarchically combined into 2nd order systems that perform different tasks. And all together form a clear infrastructure with a star-like tree topology. In which the switching equipment is the nodes located in specially prepared and serviced premises.
It is the most efficient framework and allows for wide scalability, control and application to support all major network applications.
Active network equipment is interconnected in a cabinet. It also houses the patch panels that are connected via cable lines to power outlets located at the users’ workplaces.
Depending on the purpose of the network, it can be built on the basis of an optical or low-current cable (UTP, STP, etc.). Equipment types are not regulated by SCS standards. They determine only its parameters. It:
- telecom sockets;
- switching panels;
- patch panels;
According to international standards, a typical SCS consists of 3 systems of the 2nd order, which are interconnected and connected into a single infrastructure according to certain principles:
Primary. These are external highways connecting nearby objects.
Secondary. These are internal highways that connect individual floors or rooms within the same facility.
Tertiary, or horizontal. These are highways connecting cross floors and information outlets at work points.
2nd order systems include line cabling and switching equipment, transition points and data outlets.
SCS installation methods
When choosing a method for laying a cable, they are guided by the architectural and design features of the facility, its technical data. This takes into account the existing systems, equipment and networks. Distinguish between two method of cable laying for SCS: hidden and open.
Hidden laying provides for the use of space in the construction of walls, floors, ceilings. Here are some of the features of this method.
In hollow partitions (walls) of frame structures when finishing with plasterboard.
In channels and pipes of different diameters. The most versatile technique. Laying is done during external and internal finishing works. Channels or pipes are laid in grooves under the decorative layer.
In a ceiling space, if the height of the false ceiling is sufficient. The cable is laid in trays or other guides, one of the tasks of which is to facilitate access to the cable during maintenance.
In raised floors. When building or renovating a building. Ideal for large rooms with movable partitions. For example, for presentation rooms and so on. Access to the sockets is provided by special hatches.
Concealed wiring is chosen more often where there are high requirements for aesthetics and interior design. However, it is worth remembering that access to hidden cables is very limited. That can complicate the maintenance, repairs and scaling of the system.
The open method does not have this disadvantage. Open cable laying is performed in plastic boxes, columns and suspended metal trays.
Between buildings, the cable is laid in a cable duct. Cable duct provides the most “comfortable” environment for both the equipment and the specialists serving it. If it is not possible to organize such a laying, cable lines are conducted by air.