Basalt slabs today are considered one of the most popular materials used for heat and sound insulation of premises. They are distinguished by excellent performance of sound absorption, low coefficient of thermal conductivity, strength, durability, environmental friendliness and low price, which made this material widespread. In fact, basalt slabs are a modification of basalt wool, but it is much more convenient to work with slabs, and they win in terms of strength. How to choose a basalt slab for warming and soundproofing a room, and which manufacturers should you pay attention to?
The basalt slab is made from natural raw materials, namely rocks (most often basalt, dolomite, diabase, clay), which first melt at a temperature of 15000C, and then, together with binders and water-repellent additives, solidify in the form of the finest fibers. As a result, the structure of the starting material changes, and the fibrous structure determines all the properties of the obtained boards.
Advantages and disadvantages of basalt slabs
Many properties of basalt slabs are identical to mineral wool, but this material has received several additional advantages. So, the main advantages are as follows:
low coefficient of thermal conductivity (about 0.04 W / m * K), it is explained by the fibrous structure of the material in which air is trapped. The latter, as you know, has a very low coefficient of thermal conductivity, and it is on this that the principle of operation of this heat-insulating material is based. So, for example, a 10 cm thick slab is comparable in efficiency with a 30 cm wooden insulation;
noise-absorbing properties are again explained by the structural features of the material. The sound wave, passing through the fibers of the basalt slab, is extinguished and even turns into thermal energy. As a result, a room protected by such a material becomes much quieter and more comfortable, and the strength of sound and vibration is much reduced, passing through the layer of the basalt slab;
resistance to fire meets the highest fire requirements, therefore this heat and sound insulator can be used in almost any room and building;
resistance to aggressive chemicals, incl. oils, acids and alkalis, makes it possible to use basalt slabs even in industrial plants;
vapor permeability, possible due to the structure of the material, allows it, with proper installation and operation, to remove excess moisture into the atmosphere, thereby ensuring an optimal microclimate in the room;
the strength characteristics of the slabs allow them to be used for insulation and sound insulation of any building systems. During the manufacturing process, the fibers are reoriented, taking a completely different direction, which provides enormous strength to the material, which is not lost over time;
- basalt slabs have good hydrophobic and water-repellent properties. This is achieved, firstly, due to the non-hygroscopic structure of the material, and, secondly, due to the use of special additives that increase the natural water-repellent properties;
resistance to biological effects;
high durability, because the material is based on stone threads, the life of which is huge. With proper installation and compliance with all operating requirements, basalt slabs will last at least 70 years, although many studies by scientists show an even longer service life;
ease of installation due to the fact that basalt slabs are easy to transport, cut and attach to any surface.
There are practically no downsides to this material. Its cost remains very affordable, but at the same time it is slightly higher than the price of polystyrene or expanded polyethylene, which makes some buyers think. In addition, during the operation of the heat and sound insulation layer, gaps between the basalt slabs may form. This process takes place under the influence of natural forces, but ultimately leads to the formation of cold bridges.
Nevertheless, the unique heat and sound insulation properties of this material make it possible to use it in a variety of areas. Basalt slabs are widely used for insulation and sound insulation of walls, ceilings, internal partitions, floors, facades and roofs of houses in all types of buildings. So, this material is used for apartment buildings, and for low-rise buildings, and even for light frame-type enclosing structures. At the same time, for different types of work, plates are used not only of different thicknesses, but also of different densities.
Selection of basalt slabs
In order for all the unique properties of basalt slabs to be used to the maximum, you need to choose the right material that will meet the technical parameters. First of all, attention is paid to the density of the slab.
The lightest slabs with a density of up to 35 kg / m3 are indispensable for unloaded structures, pitched roofs, as well as for insulation and sound insulation of attics, attics, frame walls.
- Basalt slabs with a density of 35-50 kg / m3 have the same sphere of distribution as the previous type of slabs, but can also be used as a heat and sound insulation layer in the facades of low-rise buildings.
- Plates with a density of 50-75 kg / m3 can be used for insulating floors and ceilings, partitions, as well as as a middle layer in a three-layer structure of walls of low buildings and as a lower heat-insulating layer in facade structures.
- Basalt slabs with a density of 75-100 kg / m3 are an excellent option for insulating external walls, and also well suited for arranging ventilated facades. It is used in both civil and industrial construction.
Slabs with a density of up to 125 kg / m3 are also well suited for ventilated facades, they can be the top layer when organizing two-layer thermal insulation.
- Basalt slabs with a density of 125-150 kg / m3 are excellent for soundproofing partitions, heat-insulating the wall for further plastering.
- Slabs with a density of up to 175 kg / m3 are used as an independent insulation layer for reinforced concrete surfaces, walls, facades and partitions.
- Plates with a density of 175-200 kg / m3 are excellent for organizing soundproofing of floors under a screed.
It is worth remembering that slabs with a lower density have higher thermal insulation characteristics, which means they will be more effective insulation. As the density increases, the thermal conductivity coefficient increases. On the other hand, a denser slab becomes synonymous with strength and durability, which means it is impossible to clearly tell which slabs are worse and which are better. The choice must be made depending on the characteristics of the given room.
As for the choice of the thickness of the basalt slabs, there can be no single correct advice, and in each case the thickness may be different. This parameter depends on the climatic conditions of the region, the place of use of the insulation, the nature of the room, the material and thickness of the walls, roof, etc. When calculating, you can use the normative document SNiP 23-02-2003, special programs or sites, which are a calculator, where the user must enter all the initial data, and then in a matter of seconds he gets the result. You can try to independently calculate for living quarters according to the following scheme.
- We determine the standard indicator of the thermal resistance of walls, floors and coatings for a specific region according to the table. For example, it is necessary to select a heat and sound insulator basalt slabs for walls in St. Petersburg, which means R = 3.06 m2 * K / W.
- We determine the coefficient of resistance to heat transfer of the insulation. It should be specified by the manufacturer, since boards with different densities may have slightly different indicators. On average, we take the thermal conductivity coefficient for basalt slabs at 0.041 W / m * K.
- Determine the heat transfer resistance of the existing walls of the house. Suppose it is built in 2.5 bricks, and the wall thickness is 67 cm.Then the heat transfer resistance in this case will be 0.67 / 0.502 = 1.33 m2 * K / W. If there is a layer of plaster or other coatings, their resistance to heat transfer is also taken into account.
- In order to compensate for the difference of 3.06-1.33 = 1.73 m2 * K / W, it is necessary to use a basalt slab 0.041 * 1.73 = 0.07 m thick, or 7 cm.Today there are slabs on sale with different thicknesses, but, as a rule, the following are found: 50, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 150 mm. In some cases, it is recommended to use thicker slabs than calculated to improve sound insulation.
The largest manufacturers on the market in Russia
It’s not a secret for anyone that the positive reputation of the manufacturer is a guarantee that the purchased product will certainly be of high quality, will correspond to all the declared properties. Today there are several large manufacturers on the market, among which the following should be noted.
ROCKWOOL is a world leader in the production of heat and sound insulation based on stone wool. The range of the company is so extensive that it allows you to choose a material that is ideal for use in any conditions. today the company includes 28 factories in 18 countries of the world, and products are widely represented on all continents, incl. in Russia.
IZOVOL is a leading Russian manufacturer of basalt slabs. The assortment has a huge selection of products, so it will be possible to choose the material for any conditions. In addition, the company’s specialists are always ready to advise the best option, and the products are presented in all regions of the country. The manufacturer’s website has a convenient system for calculating the required thickness of a basalt slab with an intuitive interface and visual results. It takes into account all the features of the room, up to the type of heating, and as a result advises which stoves are optimal in this case.
LLC Bogdanovichi Mineral Wool Plates Plant is a modern enterprise that uses the latest technologies and equipment for the production of basalt slabs produced under the Izba trademark. For the manufacture of products, Italian equipment is used. In addition, full control is carried out at all stages of production, and all finished products have quality certificates. The assortment includes a huge number of items of heat-insulating basalt slabs intended for use in various fields. For the convenience of users, each type of product has received a corresponding name, which suggests the possibilities of its use. Each type of product is accompanied by all the necessary documentation and extensive information with its technical characteristics.
Corporation “TechnoNicol” is a modern company that produces a huge amount of building materials. Huge work experience since 1992, the use of modern European equipment and strict control over the production technology made it possible to achieve a huge quality of manufactured products, which has proven itself not only in the Russian market, but also abroad. Among the heat and sound insulation materials produced by the company, there are also basalt slabs, which are represented here in several types with different product densities.
ZAO Izorok is a company located in Russia, but using 100% foreign capital. It is located in Tambov, on the territory of a plant built in the 80s. After its modernization, they began to produce thermal insulation materials, incl. and basalt slabs. The assortment includes material with different densities, and specialists are always ready to provide advice. Sales are carried out in all regions of the country.
EKOVER is a relatively new player in the domestic market of thermal and sound insulation. The opening of the plant in the Sverdlovsk region took place in 2010, and now it is a young modern enterprise that specializes in the production of basalt thermal and sound insulation. The assortment includes slabs with different parameters, among which you can definitely find exactly what you need.