Roofing material has long established itself as a practical and inexpensive roofing material, it can also be used as part of the roofing pie. Depending on the type of base and sprinkling, roofing material is used for different purposes, and with the advent of modern varieties of material, the scope of its use has expanded significantly. To make the right choice of roofing material for the roof, you need to know the basic properties of all its types and the features of the application of each of them.
# 1. Advantages and disadvantages of roofing material
Roofing material has found wide application as a roofing and waterproofing material, used for arranging roofs of garages and houses with flat and pitched roofs. The material is sold in rolls and consists of several layers. The basis of the long-familiar roofing material is roofing cardboard, which is impregnated with bitumen and protected from above with dressing. The latter serves as protection against ultraviolet rays, mechanical damage, increases the waterproofing properties of the material and prevents it from sticking in rolls. Spreading can be made from different materials, and today not only roofing cardboard is used as a basis, but more on that below.
All types of roofing material are characterized by the following general positive qualities:
complete moisture resistance, which allows the use of roofing material as a waterproofing material when arranging roofs and foundations, and not so long ago there was no worthy alternative to it at all;
- the use of modifying polymer additives makes it possible to obtain a material resistant to ultraviolet radiation and temperature extremes. New types of roofing material will last about 15-50 years, depending on the composition.
Traditional roofing felt has a significant drawback – high sensitivity to temperature extremes. In the heat, bitumen softens, in the cold it becomes too fragile and cracks, therefore the durability of such a material is low – 5-8 years. These disadvantages are corrected by changing some of the constituent components in modern samples of roofing material, so the demand for the material remains consistently high.
№2. Type of roofing material dusting
Some properties of roofing material and its scope of application depend on the type of dressing used. Most often, the following materials are used as a spill:
coarse-grained stone chips, marked in the marking with the letter K. Such roofing material can be used as the upper and lower layers of a roofing cake, as well as for the organization of waterproofing;
flaked mica slate is indicated in the marking with the letter C. Roofing material of this type can be used to equip the upper layer of the roof;
- roofing felt with fine-grained sand spreading (M) can be used as the bottom layer of the roof or for arranging waterproofing;
- Roofing material with dust-like dusting (P) made of chalk and talcum powder can only be used for waterproofing or in the lower part of the roofing cake.
№3. Marking of roofing material
The properties and purpose of roofing material can be judged by its marking. According to GOST, the material should be designated by an alphanumeric abbreviation of the RKP-300 type, where the second letter speaks of the type of roofing material (K – roofing, P – lining), and the third – about the type of sprinkling. The number indicates the brand of cardboard, which is the basis of roofing material, and speaks of its density in g / m2. For example, the RKK-400 marking means that in front of you is a coarse-grained roofing felt with cardboard with a density of 400 g / m2. For roofing roofing felt, cardboard grades 350 and 400 are used, and cardboard brand 300 is used only for lining roofing material. Sometimes another letter is used in the marking, which speaks of the specific properties of the material: C means that the roofing material will be painted in some color to increase the decorative qualities, E means that you have an elastic material in front of you.
The most widely used roofing material of the following brands:
- RKP-300 – soft roll material, used as the bottom layer of the roofing cake and as waterproofing;
- RKP-350 can be used as both a lower and an upper layer;
- RPP-300 is used only as a backing layer;
- RKK-400 is more often than others used as a top layer for roofing, has good resistance to negative atmospheric influences.
Roofing material is sold in rolls 10-15 m long and 1-1.1 m wide.
No. 4. Roofing material base material
Traditional roofing material, used as a roofing material for many years, is created on the basis of special cardboard, and this is its weak point. When the bituminous coating loses its main useful properties, and the dressing disappears, the roofing material has to be changed. To increase durability, today, in addition to cardboard, they use as a basis for roofing material:
- polymeric materials;
Not only bitumen can be used as a coating, but also tar, a mixture of tar and bitumen, polymers and bitumen-polymer mixtures. The use of new materials as a base and coating has led to the emergence of modern types of roofing material. They are more expensive, but they have excellent performance and require detailed consideration.
No. 5. Modern types of roofing material
The most widespread are such modern varieties of roofing material:
rubemast is a fairly popular roll roofing material, it is an improved version of the traditional roofing material. It is distinguished by the presence of a thicker bitumen layer on the bottom of the cardboard, and due to the addition of plasticizers and additives, it gets improved performance. This is a cheap material that can last up to 15 years, it is ductile, crack-resistant;
glass insulation has the same structure as a conventional roofing material with one exception – instead of cardboard, fiberglass or fiberglass is used. Atactic polypropylene is used as a protective layer. The result is a durable, flexible and elastic material that is resistant to decay, high and low temperatures (withstands temperatures from -45 to + 100 ° C), with excellent heat and sound insulation properties. It can be roofing and lining. To take advantage of all the advantages of the material, it is necessary to observe all the nuances of installation, and this is only within the power of professionals;
self-adhesive roofing material. This material has appeared on the market quite recently; it does not require heating during installation, since the lower part of such roofing material is made of a special substance covered with a protective film. Installation of the material is very simple and does not require careful preparation of the roof surface. The color of the material is dark gray, it is used where it is not possible to use an open flame. Service life is not the highest – up to 10 years;
roofing paper. The material is also based on roofing cardboard, but it is impregnated with coal or shale tar products, has a mineral dusting, and is produced in rolls. Roofing paper has high biostability, excellent hydro and vapor barrier properties. The material is recommended to be laid in several layers in order to achieve a longer service life, because the roofing material is even less durable than traditional roofing felt. Today it is mainly used as a temporary roof covering;
glassine. It is based on roofing cardboard, impregnated with soft petroleum bitumen, has improved performance compared to ordinary roofing felt. It is used as an independent roofing material, as part of a roofing cake, sometimes even used for waterproofing a foundation. Durability about 12 years;
the waterproofing is made on the basis of asbestos paper impregnated with petroleum bitumen. It is used as an independent roofing material, can be used to cover pipelines. Withstands temperatures up to + 80 ° C, color – black;
armored roofing felt – a kind of ordinary roofing material, it is distinguished by a higher density of the cardboard used (its density is 500g / m2 and higher) and colored dusting. Such material is more resistant to UV rays, its service life reaches 15 years;
uniflex is a polymer-bitumen material, produced using rubber, thanks to which excellent indicators of frost and heat resistance are achieved. The basis is fiberglass, polyester or fiberglass. Can be used as an independent roofing material, as part of a roofing cake, for arranging ventilated roofs, service life up to 25 years;
Reinforced roofing material is produced on the basis of fiberglass, which is reinforced with a special mesh and covered with a bitumen-polymer composition. The material has increased resistance to mechanical damage, can withstand serious loads, which, due to the reinforcement, are evenly distributed over the entire area. Granite or slate is used as dressing. Such roofing material is not susceptible to the formation of fungus, has high adhesion to all kinds of bases, one layer of it replaces 3-4 layers of ordinary roofing material. Service life reaches 18 years;
isospan and bikrost can be used only for waterproofing or as a roofing film.
All modern types of roofing material based on fiberglass or polymer are often combined into the group of euroruberoids. The latter sometimes include liquid roofing material or liquid rubber. This material is based on a mixture of bitumen, polymers, rubber, plasticizers and mineral additives, it is applied to the surface with a roller or spray, forming a seamless and easily repairable surface.
No. 6. Roofing material installation method
Depending on the characteristics of the substances used in the production of materials, roofing material can be mounted in different ways. By the type of installation, roofing material is divided into the following types:
No. 7. What should you look for when buying?
When buying roofing material, you must carefully examine it:
on each roll there must be a marking by which one can judge the possible scope of use of the material. In addition, the roofing material must have a mark of compliance with GOST 10923-93;
- the material should not have cracks, folds or breaks. Cracks are allowed only on the edge and no more than 2 cm in length;
- in the section of roofing material there should be no light areas and areas without impregnation, the impregnation layer should be uniform;
- rolls should be packed in thick paper and transported on special supports.
No. 8. Large manufacturers of roofing material
In the construction market, roofing material is mainly represented by products of domestic manufacturers. In a highly competitive environment, each manufacturer tries to introduce advanced technologies into their production and improve product quality.
The largest domestic manufacturers of roofing material:
the group of companies “TechnoNICOL” includes several production sites throughout the country. All enterprises are equipped with modern computerized technological lines, there is a research laboratory that controls the products. Traditional roofing material, bikrost, glassine, rubemast, uniflex and other materials are produced.
Omskkrovlya OJSC. The enterprise has been operating since 1970 and uses West Siberian oil as a raw material. The manufactured products have passed the test of time, meet the most stringent quality standards, therefore they are used not only in all regions of Russia, but also abroad. The plant produces traditional roofing felt of various modifications, rubemast and glassine;
LLC Yugstroykrovlya is a relatively young company that has managed to become one of the largest manufacturers of roll roofing materials in the southern region. The manufacturer manufactures various types of roofing material, modern fiberglass-based surfacing coatings, incl. rubemast and steklohydroizol;
CJSC “Myagkaya krovlya” is a Samara plant with more than 80 years of history. It is one of the leading domestic enterprises for the production of roll roofing materials. The products are used in industrial and civil construction in all regions of the country. Produces various brands of traditional roofing material, as well as reinforced roofing felt and glassine;
CJSC Diversified Production Company KRZ is a Ryazan enterprise with a long history. Once it provided the entire central part of Russia with roofing material; over time, the range of products was expanded with other roofing materials. Today it is a high-tech enterprise equipped with modern production lines. Among other things, roofing material of various brands, glassine and rubemast are produced here.
Despite the emergence and widespread distribution of many other roofing materials, roofing felt continues to be in high demand. Its modern types allow you to inexpensively equip a durable, reliable and solid roof.